Introduction Our body requires ATP, which is generated by reducing O2 to H2O through oxidative phosphorylation(OxPhos) in mitochondria (Jarmuszkiewicz, et al., 2015). During this process, a group of reactive metabolites including free radicals(FR)(e.g. O2●-, OH●) and non-radicals(e.g. H2O2) are generated. They are grouped as reactive oxygen species(ROS) (Rao, et al., 2011). FR are groups of atoms orbited… Continue reading Role of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson’s Disease
Most of us know that smoking is harmful to our lungs. Have you ever thought of how inhaling smoke particles over a long period of time will damage our lungs? Or even wondered why heavy smokers had difficulty in breathing when they get flu. In Emphysema, one of the respiratory diseases found in smokers, the… Continue reading When Smoke gets into Your Lungs….
Immune system can recognize and eliminate abnormal cells including tumour cells through a property called Immunosurveillance. This property is often suppressed by tumour cells to enhance their survival rate. Considering this property and adverse side effects of current anticancer therapies, scientists came up with a novel treatment called immunotherapy. Since only few immunotherapies have been… Continue reading Use of Microbes in Cancer Treatment